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ACCOUNTING PERIODS AND METHODS OF ACCOUNTING
Section 43. General Rule. - The taxable income shall be computed upon the basis of the taxpayer's annual accounting period (fiscal year or calendar year, as the case may be) in accordance with the method of accounting regularly employed in keeping the books of such taxpayer, but if no such method of accounting has been so employed, or if the method employed does not clearly reflect the income, the computation shall be made in accordance with such method as in the opinion of the Commissioner clearly reflects the income. If the taxpayer's annual accounting period is other than a fiscal year, as defined in Section 22(Q), or if the taxpayer has no annual accounting period, or does not keep books, or if the taxpayer is an individual, the taxable income shall be computed on the basis of the calendar year.
Section 44. Period in which Items of Gross Income Included. - The amount of all items of gross income shall be included in the gross income for the taxable year in which received by the taxpayer, unless, under methods of accounting permitted under Section 43, any such amounts are to be properly accounted for as of a different period. In the case of the death of a taxpayer, there shall be included in computing taxable income for the taxable period in which falls the date of his death, amounts accrued up to the date of his death if not otherwise properly includible in respect of such period or a prior period.
Section 45. Period for which Deductions and Credits Taken. - The deductions provided for in this Title shall be taken for the taxable year in which 'paid or accrued' or 'paid or incurred', dependent upon the method of accounting the basis of which the net income is computed, unless in order to clearly reflect the income, the deductions should be taken as of a different period. In the case of the death of a taxpayer, there shall be allowed as deductions for the taxable period in which falls the date of his death, amounts accrued up to the date of his death if not otherwise properly allowable in respect of such period or a prior period.
Section 46. Change of Accounting Period. If a taxpayer, other than an individual, changes his accounting period from fiscal year to calendar year, from calendar year to fiscal year, or from one fiscal year to another, the net income shall, with the approval of the Commissioner, be computed on the basis of such new accounting period, subject to the provisions of Section 47.
Section 47. Final or Adjustment Returns for a Period of Less than Twelve (12) Months.
(A) Returns for Short Period Resulting from Change of Accounting Period. - If a taxpayer, other than an individual, with the approval of the Commissioner, changes the basis of computing net income from fiscal year to calendar year, a separate final or adjustment return shall be made for the period between the close of the last fiscal year for which return was made and the following December 31. If the change is from calendar year to fiscal year, a separate final or adjustment return shall be made for the period between the close of the last calendar year for which return was made and the date designated as the close of the fiscal year. If the change is from one fiscal year to another fiscal year, a separate final or adjustment return shall be made for the period between the close of the former fiscal year and the date designated as the close of the new fiscal year.
(B) Income Computed on Basis of Short Period. - Where a separate final or adjustment return is made under Subsection (A) on account of a change in the accounting period, and in all other cases where a separate final or adjustment return is required or permitted by rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner, to be made for a fractional part of a year, then the income shall be computed on the basis of the period for which separate final or adjustment return is made.
Section 48. Accounting for Long-term Contracts. - Income from long-term contracts shall be reported for tax purposes in the manner as provided in this Section. As used herein, the term 'long-term contracts' means building, installation or construction contracts covering a period in excess of one (1) year. Persons whose gross income is derived in whole or in part from such contracts shall report such income upon the basis of percentage of completion. The return should be accompanied by a return certificate of architects or engineers showing the percentage of completion during the taxable year of the entire